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发表时间:2019-11-6 23:10

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海涛海涛 发表在 太阳城游戏恒彩彩票 华声论坛 http://899.133534.com/forum-114-1.html


  雅思写作一直是众多烤鸭难以逾越的一道坎。一提到它,77gvb.com:很多烤鸭都是不知道哭好还是笑好~下面北京新东方雅思老师杨老师将与大家分享“雅思7+作文必备句式,专治各种成绩低!”
  对于难拿高分的写作,很多考鸭可能缺的不是技巧,而是内功——语法,从写作的角度来看,就是写出复杂句,并尽可能的增加句型的丰富性和多样性。
  雅思写作第四项评分标准【Grammatical range and accuracy语法多样性及准确性】中对7分以上作文的要求是:“use a variety of complex structures”,即运用各种复杂句式,体现语法的丰富度。
  复杂句
  复杂句,我们可以通过把多个信息加在一个句子里,将简单句变成复杂句,最常见的就是各类从句。
  剑桥雅思真题14的Test1和Test4大作文分别给了一篇7分和7.5分的范文,全篇分别25句和17句,其中从句的比例均在60%左右(15句和10句)。Test2大作文给了一篇考官范文,全篇共14句,其中从句的比例更是高达79%(11句)。
  由此看出,考官对于会写漂亮从句的考生格外青睐。因此,想拿写作高分,我们也要尽可能熟练地将各种从句交替使用在作文中。
  英语从句分三大类:定语从句、名词性从句、状语从句。今天,我们先来讲讲最能花式展现表达丰富度的【定语从句】。
  定语从句
  定语的“定”指“限定”,用来给某些名词或句子增加信息,让读者清楚该名词或句子具体指示的范围。如:
  给我买个iPhone
  给我买个最新款的iPhone
  第一句并未指明要的是哪款iPhone,而第二句中因为加入了定语“最新款的”,就能清楚地知道你指的是哪一款iPhone。
  定语从句,就是由一个完整的句子充当定语,如“给我买个爱拍照的美少男少女统统人手一个的iPhone”。
  下面,我们来康康写作常用的3种定从句型(按“基础”–“进阶”–“看着办”3个等级):
  1、基础用法
  … [n.] that …
  使用条件:修饰完整句子中的某个名词(n.)
  定语从句其实是日常用语中张口就能来的,只是以前被英语老师讲难了,尤其是同学们最困惑的世纪谜团——引导词。
  我们在写作中,如果不确定用什么引导词,大多数情况下that都比较万能,且最好不要省略。如:
  Many countries are confronted with serious environmental issues.(信息1:很多国家遇到环境问题)
  These environmental issues have been ignored over a long period of time.(信息2:这些环境问题长期以来被忽视)
  Many countries are confronted with serious environmental issues that have been ignored over a long period of time. (that = which)
  注意:定从前有逗号时不能用that
  我们造句时,可以盯紧句中的名词,给它(们)添加带“的”的修饰信息。如:
  Many children have remarkable willingness to bombard their brains with novel experiences.
  孩子?什么样“的”孩子?
  如:“沉迷科幻小说的”孩子。
  Many children that are overwhelmed with science fictions have remarkable willingness to bombard their brains with novel experiences.
  这种句型还能用来替换一些基本没有同义词或我们想不到同义词的题干关键词组,有效调动我们已有的词汇储备。如:
  Some people think that developing countries should invite large foreign companies to set up offices and factories to help economic growth. … (2012/1/7)
  题干关键词组foreign companies在文章中需要反复出现,如果想在词汇上拿到高分,必须想方设法把它替换掉。
  foreign是形容词,跟定从一样也翻译成“…的”,那我们就可以先用中文想想“外国的”还有什么同义表达。
  什么样“的”公司叫外企?我们可以有很多不同说法,比如:
  “来自国外的”公司 —— companies that come from other countries
  “从海外引入的”公司 —— companies that are introduced from overseas
  “由外国人建立的”公司 ——companies that are established by foreigners (注意:foreign和foreigners是完全不同的两个词,并无重复)
  具体选用哪些表达,完全取决于同学们的词汇量。比如有些同学不知道“海外”有哪些同义词,所以使用定从的好处就是我们可以尽可能的选用自己会的单词。
  这样一来,考官就会发现我们在文章中每次出现“外企”时,都在尝试运用不同词汇,这不就是词汇丰富度的体现吗?
  同学们可以自己尝试运用这种方法改写以下题目中出现的关键名词组:
  (1) Some people think they have the right to use as much fresh water as they want. Others believe governments should strictly control the use of fresh water as it is a limited resource. (2016/12/10)
  (2) Some people think the government should establish free libraries in each town. (2012/1/12)
  2、进阶用法
  ..., which(非人)/who(人) …
  使用条件:上句的某词(组)或整句,是下句的主语。如:
  (1) The figure for China was 2,000.
  (2) The figure for China was the largest among all the five countries.
  上句给数据,下句说排名,两句都出现了the figure for China (非人),两句话完全可以融在一起,用which取代这个重复的词组,变成:
  The figure for China was 2,000, which was the largest among all the five countries.
  这样既可满足连贯与衔接评分标准中要求的“指代和替换”,又能将句型变复杂,一举两得。这种句型在大作文中可用来强调某事/某做法的效果,作为结果论证。如:
  Students living at home would enjoy a cozier life and have more opportunities to interact with their parents, which has a beneficial impact on the cultivation of their personal character. (“有更舒适的环境和与父母交流的机会”的结果是“对性格发育有好处”)
  把这个句型改造一下,加个means变成“…, which means…”,可用作解释论证,进一步解释前文含义。如:
  Another drawback generated by granting the responsibility to drug companies is that many of them are profit-oriented, which means their ultimate objective is to pursue the maximum revenue.
  同学们可以自己尝试用这种方法改写以下几组句子:
  (1) France used coal as a source for only 25 units of electricity in 1980.
  Coal was matched by natural gas.
  (2) Being expert in a specific field enables students to cope with some practical problems in a professional way when they enter the workforce.
  They might be capable of boosting the efficiency of their companies.
  3、看着办吧
  …[地点] (,) where / in which …
  使用条件:修饰一个地点,且where/in which后的句子不缺主语或宾语。这种句型在地图题中使用的比较多,如:
  A parking lot will be constructed in the middle of the northern part.
  There was once a fountain in the middle of the northern part.
  A parking lot will be constructed in the middle of the northern part, where / in which there was once a fountain. (which = the middle of the northern part)
  有时在大作文里也可以用来修饰一些“抽象地点”名词,提高文章的档次。写作常用的抽象地点名词有:
  situation≈condition≈occasion≈case /
  job≈work≈career / point /…
  举几个例子:
  1、Many areas of the world have come to a situation where adjustments to the judicial systems are demanded. (where = in the situation)
  2、Teenagers should be given the opportunities to participate in some community services where they could realize the value of their life. (where = in the community services)
  以上是从英语学习中选出来的常用在雅思写作中的几个定从句式。每个句型可以在一篇文章里看情况重复使用,但再好的句子用多了考官也会腻的,写作只是我们向考官展示语言能力的过程,只要让他知道我们会写定从,且不止一种定从句式就够了,不必同一句式不停使用。
  最后,祝愿大家都能早日屠鸭,拿到理想的分数~


回复时间:2019-11-7 08:55
谢谢分享!




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回复时间:2019-11-7 08:55
谢谢分享!




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看经典美图到三晋!



 
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